Mule deer specs:

Name for male, female, and young

Buck, Doe, Fawn

Female adult weight

weight icon 140 lbs toolip question mark

Male adult weight

weight icon 200 lbs toolip question mark

Neonate weight

weight icon 9.5 lbs toolip question mark

Young to adult size ratio

weight ratio icon 1:20 toolip question mark

Male to female size ratio

weight ratio icon 1.4:1 toolip question mark

Age range

icon calendar 15 toolip question mark

Geriatric age

Geriatric icon 12 toolip question mark


Shield icon Antlers toolip question mark

Average number of offspring

DNA icon 2 toolip question mark

Max number of offspring

DNA icon 3 toolip question mark

Length of gestation

DNA icon 200 days toolip question mark

Timing of parturition (i.e., birth)

calendar icon with question mark Early/mid June toolip question mark

Age of first reproduction

icon sprerm and embryo 2 (occasionally 1) toolip question mark

Timing of rut

icon sprerm and embryo Mid - late November toolip question mark

Social or solitary

toolip question mark

Hider or follower

 toolip question mark

Harem holder or tending bond

toolip question mark

Browser or grazer

toolip question mark

Primary summer food

Geranium spp., Lupinus spp. (lupine), Poa spp. (grass), Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush)toolip question mark

Image result for sticky geranium Grass Image result for Wyoming wild lupine 

Primary winter food

Atremisia tridentata (big sagebrush) toolip question mark

Migration strategy

Map icon Mostly migratory; sometimes residents toolip question mark

Primary predator

predator icon Mountain lion, black bear toolip question mark

Common disease(s)

disease icon Chronic wasting disease (CWD), Adenovirus hemorrhagic disease (AHD) toolip question mark

Winter habitat

lower elevation icon Lower elevation sage-steppe toolip question mark

Summer habitat

mountain icon Varies by individual toolip question mark

Icon credits: DNA by LAFS from the Noun Project, Food Chain by James Keane from the Noun Project
Plant pictures: Geranium by Ed Rich, Lupine by Madam ZOZO, Poa Uploaded by Jacopo Werther, CC BY-SA 2.0,


Make a pub(lications) crawl through our recent findings:

Jakopak, R. P., T. N. LaSharr, S. P. H. Dwinnell, G. L. Fralick, and K. L. Monteith 2019. Rapid acquisition of memory in a complex landscape by a mule deer. Ecology.
Mule Deer

Dwinnell, S. P. H., H. Sawyer, J. E. Randall, J. L. Beck, J. S. Forbey, G. L. Fralick, and K. L. Monteith. 2019. Where to forage when afraid: Does perceived risk impair use of the foodscape? Ecological Applications.
Mule Deer


Research: our current projects


Wyoming Range Mule Deer Project


Deer-Elk Ecology Research Project

Species distribution:

Mule deer live in various habitats throughout western North America.